Situation analysis Tool: Compile all the information you need

Objective:

In order to develop a country development strategy or projects, donors and NGOs must compile relevant information in order to identify gaps and needs in the country. The specific challenge consists in compiling relevant and updated information for an evidence-based situation analysis.This section proposes a selection of data and information sources that provide information and data available at hand to undertake a human rights-based country situation analysis in water and sanitation.

Process:

How much existing information is available?
Compile new information

1. How much existing information is available?

Data sources were selected on the basis of the following criteria:

  • relevance of the information to document the development and the human rights status of the country
  • authority and legitimacy attached to the data source.
  • data-collecting process: Primary/ secondary/ tertiary source : means of verification used in the monitoring process, process for collecting data (household survey, questionnaires etc). Reliability of the data source will be inferred from a number of parameters, including the means of verification used in the monitoring process, the process for collecting data (household survey, questionnaires etc).
  • allowing to make comparison in space (national, regional, global scale) and time; and
  • easy handing and pedagogical, to find the information easily.
List of Reference Material
Development focused
 □ ’National Development Strategy
□ National Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (NPRSP)and monitoring report on the follow up of the NPRSP
□ National Monitoring Report for the Implementation of the MDGs, chapter on MDG 7 on water and sanitation
□ UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF)-Country Strategy
WASH-focused
□ National water and sanitation statistics (Ministry in charge with water)
Laws, policies, national strategies, plan of action for the water and sanitation sector
□ National budget dedicated to the water and sanitation sector
National monitoring reports for the water and sanitation sector issued by:’
□ The Ministry in charge with water and sanitation’
□ Water regulator
□ National Human Rights Institutions
□ Civil Society Networks/organizations
□ Development agencies (bilateral/multilateral; incl. European Union) monitoring reports for the WASH Sector
□ Joint Sector review by Technical and Financing Partners
’ □ Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) Country Report
UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking (GLAAS)  Country report
Country Water Partnership (GWP), Country Report
Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)
□ UNDAF (United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF))  /CAS
Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS)
□ Country Status Overview (CSOs) (Africa)
WASHWatch
Human Rights- Focused
□ ’WaterLex Legal Database
□ ’Universal Human Rights Index
’ □ National reports to the human rights treaty mechanisms, esp. Universal Periodic Review and the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Committee (ESCRC)
□ Monitoring reports of the National Human Rights Institution
General Statistics
□ UNSD Statistical Data bases
□ ’World Bank Data and Statistics

2. Compile new information

In order to compile new information a number a methods exist that meet to a greater or lesser extent with human rights principles.

Method Criteria Surveys Life History based Qualitative Work Participant Observation Case Studies Participatory Learning and Action
Coverage (scale of applicability) High Low Low Low Medium
Representative-ness High Low Low Low Medium
Ease of data standarisation, aggregation, and synthesis High Low Medium to Low Low Medium to Low
Ability to isolate and measure non-intervention causes of change (root causes) High High Low Low Low
Ability to cope with attribution High Medium Medium Medium Medium
Ability to capture qualitative information about poverty reduction Low High High High High
Ability to capture causal processes of poverty and vulnerability (root causes) Low High High Medium High
Ability to capture diversity of perceptions about poverty (participation) Low High High Medium High
Ability to elicit the views of women, minorities and other disadvantaged groups about poverty (non discrimination) Low High High High—if targeted Medium?
Ability to capture unexpected negative impacts on “the poor” (non discrimination) Low High Very High High High
Ability to identify and articulate felt needs (demand based approach) Low High High Medium to Low High
Degree of participation of “the poor” encouraged by the method Low Medium Medium Medium Very high
Potential to contribute to building capacity of stakeholders with respect to poverty analysis (participation) Low Medium Low Medium to Low Very High
Probability of enhancing downwards accountability to poor groups and communities (accountability) Low Medium Medium Medium High
Ability to capture the multidimensionality of poverty (interdependence of human rights) Low High High Medium Very High
Ability to capture poverty impact at different levels-individual, household, community Low High High Low High
Human resource requirements Specialist supervision, large numbers of less qualified field workers High-skilled practitioners who are able to analyse and write up results Mid-skilled practitioners. Long time commitment.Need good supervision. Mid-skilled practitioners.Need good supervision. High-skilled practitioners
Cost range Very High to Medium High to Medium Medium to Low Medium to Low High to Medium
Timescale Very High to Medium Medium to Low High High to Medium Medium to Low

Source: CPRC Method Toolbox