M&E Tool: Tailoring M&E Methods to address Human Rights and Gender Equality

Tailoring common methods to address human rights and gender equality
Method How to adress human rights and gender equality using the method
Desk review:
A desk review consists of a review of literature in the area of the intervention, as well as documents related to the intervention being evaluated (e.g. programme formulation document, activity reports, monitoring reports, databases, communication material produced by the intervention, etc.)
Look for specific information on HR & GE, such as: i) evidence of the HR & GE analysis at the design stage; ii) evidence of a detailed and inclusive stakeholder analysis, including the most vulneranle groups; iii) evidence of quality management and participation of stakeholders in the various steps of implementation; iv) information on various stakeholder groups collected in monitoring and reporting; v) evidence of how HR & GE were addressed by the intervention, and the results achieved in the area.
Look for literature on how HR & GE relate to the area of the intervention being evaluated, including academic literature on the issue being studied.
Look at organizational policies, international and regional conventions, general comments and recommendations, agreements, etc. on human rights and gender equality.
Look for data on how HR & GE manifest in the particular context (country, region, community, etc.) of the intervention.
Look for literature produced by programme partners and other organizations that may inform the assessment of HR & GE in the intervention.
Focus groups:
Focus groups are small groups constituted to discuss specific issues or questions. Focus groups are, in general, organized according to interests, characteristics of the participants, etc., and discussions must be facilitated by one person (usually the evaluator, but not necessarily).
Pay special attention to the constitution of groups, as it will have a significant influence on the extent to which participants feel safe to participate and communicate their ideas. Seek disaggregation by gender, age, social position, income, sexual orientation, category (rights holders/duty bearers), disability, etc.
Refer to the stakeholder analysis in the beginning of the evaluation process to make decisions.
Make sure that the most vulnerable are represented. Think about practical issues that may enhance or undermine participation including time, place, accessibility of the areas where the focus group will gather.
Make sure that questions directed to the focus groups include an assessment of their views on HR & GE.
Facilitate sensitively: before starting the focus group, seek information to help understand the context, the relationships between individuals and groups, the power dynamics, and how the different individuals and groups in the focus group are affected by HR & GE issues. During facilitation, use this knowledge to guarantee an adequate interaction between participants.
Use the information gathered previously to inform the analysis of the focus group discussion.
Interviews:
Consists of individual interaction with selected people, in person or by other means (telephone, e-mail, etc.). Interviews usually offer an opportunity to ask more profound questions, and to refine the qualitative data obtained during the evaluation process. They are also an opportunity for people to speak more freely.
Make sure that the sample selected for individual interviews adequately refelects the diversity of stakeholders of the intervention. Pay special attention to the inclusion of the most vulnerable stakeholders, who may have been forgotten or left out of discussions and decision-making in the intervention. Refer to the stakeholder analysis in the beginning of the evaluation process to make decisions.
Consider language and translation needs.
Make sure to ask specific follow-up questions on HR & GE during the individual interviews.
Make sure to understand how each interviewee is affected by the HR & GE issues.
Interviewees should be guaranteed that they will not be negatively affected by providing their honest views on HR & GE issues.
Respect confidentiality. Ask for permission to quote their words. In some cases, words or sentences may identify the person, even if their name is not in the report. In these cases, be honest about the confidentiality challenge and only quote interviewees if they agree with it.
Make sure that an adequate understanding of the context, relationships, power, etc. informs the analysis of data collected in interviews.
Surveys:
Surveys are implemented through the application of questionnaires (in person or electronically) and are the most common tool to obtain information from a large number of people in an evaluation.
Make sure that the sample selected to respond to the survey reflects the diversity of stakeholders in the intervention, including women and men. Include the most vulnerable groups. Refer to the stakeholder analysis in the beginning of the evaluation process to make decisions.
Pay particular attention to the format and language of the survey. Consider alternatives to address respondents who are illiterate or have low education levels, and make sure that all are able to understand the questions.
Create the different questionnaires for different stakeholder groups. While you want to ensure that at least some of the questions are comparable in content (to inform the subsequent data analysis), it is also important to address the specific issues and interests of the various stakeholder groups. As indicated above, language and format will also need to be adaptable.
Make sure that the survey includes specific HR & GE questions.
Make sure that you are aware of bias when analyzing data. This is particularly important in this large-scale tool, and it is essential to understand who responded, how the different stakeholder groups are represented in the respondent, who didn’t respons and why.

Source: UNEG, Integrating Human Rights and Gender Equality in Evaluation- Towards UNEG Guidance, 2011,p.42.